Monday, 30 March 2015

Temperature extremes

There is a fascinating website which gives temperature extremes all around the globe

63.5°F in Antarctica: Possible Continental Record; 14 Years of Rain in 1 Day in Chile
By: Jeff Masters and Bob Henson

27 March, 2015



The warmest temperature ever recorded on the continent of Antarctica may have occurred on Tuesday, March 24, 2015, when the mercury shot up to 63.5°F (17.5°C) at Argentina's Esperanza Base on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. According to weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, the previous hottest temperature recorded in Antarctica was 63.3°F (17.4°C) set just one day previously at Argentina's Marambio Base, on a small islet just off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Prior to this week's remarkable heat wave, the hottest known temperature in Antarctica was the 62.8°F (17.1°C) recorded at Esperanza Base on April 24, 1961. (The World Meteorological Organization—WMO—has not yet certified that this week's temperatures are all-time weather records for Antarctica, though the Argentinian weather service has verified that the temperatures measured at Esperanza Base and Marambio Base were the highest ever measured at each site.) A new all-time temperature record for an entire continent is a rare event, and Weather Underground's weather historian, Christopher C. Burt, has full details in his latest post. 

Figure 1. Argentina's Esperanza Base on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula: the hottest place in Antarctica. Image credit: Wikipedia.

The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest warming spots on Earth. A 2012 Climate Central post by Michael Lemonick documented how while the Earth as a whole warmed up by 1.3°F between 1900 and 2011, the Antarctic Peninsula warmed by 5°, forcing massive ice shelves to disintegrate and penguin colonies to collapse. A 2012 paper in Nature found that the recent warming is faster than 99.7% of any other given 100-year period in the last 2000 years.
New all-time national and territorial heat records set or tied in 2015
So far in 2015, five nations or territories have tied or set all-time records for their hottest temperature in recorded history. For comparison, only two nations or territories did so in 2014, and nine did in 2013. The most all-time national heat records in a year was nineteen in 2010 (21 records at the time, but two have been broken since.)

Since 2010, 46 nations or territories (out of a total of 235) have set or tied all-time heat records, and four have set all-time cold temperature records. Since each of those years ranked as one of the top twelve warmest years in Earth's recorded history, this sort of disparity in national heat and cold records is to be expected. Most nations do not maintain official databases of extreme temperature records, so the national temperature records reported here are in many cases not official. I use as my source for international weather records Maximiliano Herrera, one of the world's top climatologists, who maintains a comprehensive list of extreme temperature records for every nation in the world on his website. If you reproduce this list of extremes, please cite Maximiliano Herrera as the primary source of the weather records. Wunderground's weather historian Christopher C. Burt maintains a database of these national heat and cold records for 235 nations and territories on wunderground.com's extremes page. Here are the national heat and cold records set so far in 2015:
Antarctica set a new territorial heat record of 17.5°C (63.5°F) at Esperanza Base on March 24. Previous record: 17.4°C (63.3°F) at Marambio Base, set the previous day.

Equatorial Guinea set a new national heat record of 35.5°C (95.9°F) at Bata on March 17. Previous record:  35.3°C (95.5°F) at Malabo in February 1957.
Ghana tied the national record of highest temperature with 43.0°C (109.4°F)  at Navrongo on February 12.

Wallis and Futuna Territory (France) set a new territorial heat record with 35.5°C (95.9°F) on January 19 at Futuna Airport.

Samoa tied its national heat record with 36.5°C (97.7°F) on January 20 at Asau. Previously record: same location, in December 1977.

Figure 2. Residents watch the rising flood waters of the Copiapo River, in Copiapo, Chile, Wednesday, March 25, 2015. Unusually heavy thunderstorms and torrential rains that began on Tuesday have caused destructive flooding that has killed seven and left nineteen others missing. (AP Photo/Aton Chile) 

Amazing rains in the Chilean desert

Unwelcome rains fell this week in Earth's driest place--Chile's Atacama Desert--causing destructive flooding that has left seven people dead and at nineteen others missing. Antofagasta, which averaged just 3.8 mm of precipitation per year between 1970 - 2000, and has a long-term average of 1.7 mm of precipitation per year, received a deluge of 24.4 mm (0.96 inches) during the 24 hour period ending at 8 am EDT March 26. That's over fourteen years of rain in one day! The rains were due to an unusually strong and persistent "cut-off" low pressure system that was trapped over Chile by the exceptionally strong ridge of high pressure that brought the warmest temperatures on record to Antarctica early in the week. A cold front associated with the cut-off low hit the Andes Mountains, dumping rains over soils with very little vegetation (due to the dry climate.) 

Unusually warm ocean temperatures approximately 1°C (1.8°F) above average off of the coast meant that high amounts of water vapor were available to fuel the storm and generate exceptionally heavy rains. Heavy precipitation eventsare common in Chile during El Niño events, like we are experiencing now. El Niño brings warmer than average waters to the Pacific coast of South America where Chile lies. 





Video 1. Raging flood waters sweep through one of the driest places on Earth, Chile’s Atacama Desert, on March 25, 2015, after fourteen years’ worth of rain (0.96”) fell in one day. Thanks go to wunderground member ChrisHamburg for posting this link in my blog comments.
.......

Have a great weekend, everyone!



For up-to-date on temperature extremes around the world GO HERE or HERE

Here, for interest, are some figures for New Zealand and the United States


NEW ZEALAND
Wellington         -1.9  31.1
Auckland           -2.5  33.1*   * a questioned temperature of 34.4C was recorded in Albert Park Station
Christchurch        -10  41.6
Dunedin            -8.8  35.7
Invercargill         -9  32.2
Queenstown        -11.4  34.1
Rangiora                 42.4
Chateau Tongariro -13.6  30
Ophir             -21.6
Ranfurly          -25.6
Raoul Island        7.4  31  
Chatham Island     -2.5  26
Campbell Island    -7.9  21.2
Enderby Island     -4.2  16.9
Alofi (Niue)           11.5  34
Vaipapahi (Niue)       10.7  34.3
Niue Airport (Niue)    10.6  33.1
Aitutaki(Cook Islands) 12.8  35.6*  * very dubious, likely recorded under not proper conditions
Avarua-Rarotonga(Cook)  8.9  35.4
Penrhyn (Cook Islands) 19.3  35.1
Fakaofo (Tokelau)        19  35.6

UNITED STATES

ALABAMA
 
Birmingham     -23.3   42.2
Centreville    -21.1   44.4
Huntsville     -23.9   43.9
Mobile         -18.3   40.6
Montgomery     -20.6   41.7
New Market     -32.8   39.4


ALASKA
 
Anchorage      -38.9   30
Barrow         -48.9   26.1
Cold Bay         -25   25.6
Coldfoot       -63.3*          * unofficial, dubious
Dutch Harbor   -15.6   27.2
Fairbanks      -54.4   35.6*   * 37.2C recorded in 1919 is wrong
Fort Yukon     -56.7   36.1*   * a record of 37.8C set in July 1915 is wrong
Richardson             36.7
Bentalit Lodge         36.6*   * officialized as 97.9F=36.6C
Juneau           -30   32.2
Kodiak         -26.7   30
Nome           -47.8   30
St Paul Island -32.2   18.9
Prospect Creek -62.1
Yakutat        -31.1   31.1
Mt. Mc Kinley  -73.5*          * unofficial
 

ARIZONA
 
Flagstaff      -34.4*  36.1    * -38.3C was also recorded in the city suburbia in 1985
Hawley Lake      -40   31.1
Lake Havasu C.  -3.9   53.3*   * faulty data due to an instrumental problem    
Phoenix         -8.9   50
Tucson         -14.4   46.1*   * 47.8C was also recorded in the old Magnetic Observatory 
Winslow        -28.3   42.8
Yuma            -5.6*  51.1*   * extremes of -15.0C and 51.7C were recorded in the city suburbia
 
 
ARKANSAS
 
Brook Farm Pond -33.9  
Fort Smith     -26.1   46.1
Little Rock    -24.4   45.6
Texarcana      -22.8   47.2
Ozark          -26.7   48.9*   *  dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Gravette (Pond)-33.9   45.6


CALIFORNIA
 
Bakersfield      -10   47.2
Bishop         -26.1   43.3
Boca           -42.8   39.4
Blue Canyon    -25.6   40
Death Valley    -9.4   53.9*   * 56.7C recorded in 1913 is unreliable
Eureka          -6.7   30.6    
Farallon Islands 3.3   27.2
Fort Bragg      -7.8   35.6
Fresno          -8.3   46.1
Los Angeles Downt.-2.2*  45*   * extremes -7.8C and 48.3C were recorded in other parts of the city
Palm Springs    -7.8   50.6
Red Bluff      -10.6   49.4
Redding         -8.9   47.8
Sacramento      -8.3   46.1
San Diego       -3.9   43.9
San Francisco   -3.9*  39.4    * a dubious -5.6C was also claimed in 1862
San Francisco AP-6.7   41.1
San Jose        -8.3   42.8
Santa Barbara   -6.7   46.1
Santa Maria     -6.7   43.3
Stockton       -10.6   46.1
Tamarack       -42.8*  32.2    * unofficial
Truckee        -33.3   38.3
 
 
COLORADO
 
Alamosa        -45.6   35.6
Aspen          -36.1   34.4
Bennett                47.8*   * faulty data, recorded with not proper instruments
Col.Springs    -32.8*  38.3    * an old record of -35.6C was recorded with not proper instruments
Denver         -33.9*  40.6*   * unofficial extremes of -34.4C and 42.2C were also recorded
Durango        -34.4   38.9
Grand Junction -30.6   41.7
Lamar          -34.4   44.4
Las Animas     -35.6   45.6
Maybell        -51.7   38.9
Pueblo           -35   42.8
Sedgwick       -37.2*  45.6    * a dubious -40C was also recorded in January 1912
 

CONNECTICUT
 
Bridgeport     -28.9   39.4
Danbury        -27.8   41.1
Coventry       -35.6   36.1
Falls Village  -35.6   39.4
Hartford       -32.8   38.9
New Haven      -30.6   38.3
Norfolk        -31.7*  33.9    * a dubious record of -38.3C also recorded in 1943
Torrington             41.1*   * very dubious
Windsor        -36.7*          * unofficial

 
DELAWARE
 
Millsboro      -27.2   41.1*   * 43.3C recorded in 1930 was recorded under not proper conditions
Wilmington     -26.1   41.7*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments

   
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Washington     -26.1*  41.1    * unofficial temperature of -26.7C was also recorded in January 1835
  

FLORIDA
 
Apalachicola   -12.8   40
Bonifay                41.7
Cottage Hill           42.2*   * dubious, likely taken with no proper instruments
Daytona Beach   -9.4   38.9
De Funiak      -17.8   41.7
Everglades City   -5   37.8
Fort Myers      -4.4   39.4
Gainesville    -14.4   40
Jacksonville   -13.9   40.6
Key West           5   36.1
Lakeland        -6.7   40.6
Melbourne       -8.3   38.9
Miami           -2.8*  37.8    * -3.9C recorded in the southern outskirts in January 1977
Middleburg     -11.1   41.7
Monticello     -16.1   42.8*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Niceville      -15.6   41.7*   * dubious
Orlando         -7.8   39.4
Pensacola        -15   41.1
Tallahassee    -18.9   40.6
Tampa           -7.8   37.2
Vero Beach      -6.1   38.9
West Palm Beach -2.8*  38.3    * -4.4C was also recorded at the old Jupiter-Hypoluxo station in 1894
  
 
GEORGIA
 
Albany         -18.9   41.7
Athens         -23.6   42.8
Atlanta        -22.8   41.1
Augusta          -20   42.8
Columbus       -19.4   41.1
Greenville     -19.4   44.4*   * very dubious
Louisville     -18.9   44.4
Macon          -21.1   42.2
Lake Marvin    -27.2*          * recorded in the  Floyd Co. former CCC Camp F-16
Rome           -22.8   42.8
Savannah       -16.1*  41.1    * unofficial -17.8C was also recorded in February 1835
 
 
HAWAII

French Frigate Sh.12.2 35.6 
Hilo            10.6   34.4
Honolulu         9.4   35
Kahului          8.9   36.1 
Lihue            7.8   32.8
Mauna Loa       -7.8   21.7
Mauna Kea        -17*          * unofficial  
Pahala           8.9   35.6*   * a record of 37.8C is a wrong data caused by a typo error
Waialua          8.3   35.6

 
IDAHO
 
Boise          -33.3   43.9*   * 45.0C was also recorded in a nearby station in July 2002
Island Park Dam-51.1   36.1
Lewiston       -30.6   47.2
Orofino        -33.3   47.8*   * dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Pocatello      -36.1   41.1
Salmon         -38.3   41.1
Sandpoint      -38.3   40
Stanley        -47.8   36.7
 
 
ILLINOIS
 
Cairo          -26.7   42.8
Centralia      -23.9*  46.1*   * dubious, like recorded with not proper instruments
Chicago        -32.8   41.7*   * a dubious 42.8C was also recorded in Midway Airport in 1934
Congerville    -37.8   43.3
East St.Louis  -23.9   47.2*   * very dubious, like recorded with not proper instruments
Greenville     -29.4   46.1
Griggsville    -32.2   46.1
Pana           -31.7   46.1
Peoria         -32.8   45
Quincy           -30   45.6
Rockford       -32.8   44.4
Springfield    -31.1   44.4
Urbana         -31.7   42.8

 
INDIANA
 
Collegeville   -32.8   46.7*    * dubious, likely recorded under not proper exposure conditions
Evansville     -30.6   43.9
Fort Wayne     -31.1   41.1
Indianapolis   -32.8   41.7
New Whiteland  -37.8   38.3
Princeton      -28.9   45
South Bend       -30   42.8
Terre Haute    -31.1   43.3

 
IOWA

Atlantic       -38.3   47.2 
Burlington     -32.8   43.9
Des Moines     -34.4   43.3
Dubuque        -35.6   43.3
Elkader        -43.9   43.9
Keokuk         -32.8   47.8*   * faulty data, recorded under not proper exposure conditions
Logan          -37.2   47.2 
Mason City     -37.2   41.7
Sioux City     -38.3   43.9
Washta         -43.9   41.7
Waterloo       -36.7   44.4


KANSAS
 
Alton            -35   49.4*   * dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Concordia      -36.1   46.7
Dodge City     -32.2   43.9
Fredonia       -29.4   49.4
Goodland       -32.8   43.9
Lebanon          -40   44.4
Topeka         -32.2   45.6
Wichita          -30   45.6
 
 
KENTUCKY

Bowling Green  -29.4   45 
Greensburg     -33.9   45.6
Jackson        -27.8   40
Lexington      -29.4   42.2
Louisville       -30   41.7
Shelbyville    -38.3   44.4
 
 
LOUISIANA
 
Baton Rouge    -16.7   43.3
Lake Charles   -16.1   41.7
Minden         -26.7   44.4
New Orleans    -14.4   40
Plain Dealing  -25.6   45.6
Shreveport     -20.6   43.9
 
 
MAINE
 
Bangor           -40   40
Big Black River-45.3
Caribou        -40.6   35.6
Eastport       -30.6   36.7
North Bridgton   -40   40.6
Portland       -39.4   39.4
Van Buren      -44.4   35

 
MARYLAND

Baltimore      -23.3   41.7*   * a dubious 42.2C was also recorded at the Inner Harbor Station in 2011
Cumberland     -25.6   42.8
Frederick      -29.4   42.8
Keedysville    -32.2   42.8
Oakland          -40   38.3
Salisbury        -25   41.1
 
 
MASSACHUSETTS

Birch Hill Dam -36.7   37.2
Boston         -27.8   40
Chester          -40*  41.7*  * questioned
Lawrence       -31.7   41.1
New Bedford    -24.4   41.7*  * questioned
Nantucket      -21.1   37.8
Pittsfield     -35.6*  38.3   * -36.1C also recorded in January 1835
Worcester      -31.1   38.9
 
 
MICHIGAN
 
Alpena         -38.3   41.1
Detroit        -31.1   40.6
Escanaba       -34.4   37.8
Flint          -33.3   42.2
Grand Rapids   -31.1   42.2
Houghton         -35   40
Houghton Lake  -44.4   41.7
Lansing        -33.9*  39.4    * -38.3C was also also recorded in East Lansing in February 1868
Luther         -38.3   43.9
Marquette      -36.7   42.2
Mio            -43.9   44.4*   * very dubious, likely taken under not proper conditions
Muskegon       -34.4   37.2
Newaygo Hardy Dam-38.3 43.9
Saginaw        -30.6   43.9
Sault Ste.Marie-38.3   36.7
Stanwood               44.4
Vanderbilt     -46.1   42.2
 
 
MINNESOTA

Beardsley      -40.6   45.8*   * very dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Bemidji        -45.6   41.7
Duluth         -40.6*  41.1    * a dubious -46.7C was recorded in the WB station in 1899
Embarrass      -53.3*          * unofficial
Internat.Falls -43.3*  37.2*   * dubious readings of -48.2C and 39.4C were recorded in the old station
Minneapolis    -40.6   42.2
Moorhead       -44.4   45.3*   * dubious
Rochester      -41.1   42.2
St. Cloud      -41.7   41.7
Tower          -50.8*  38.3    * originally -59.5F (-50.8C) was later rounded to -60F (-51.1C)
 
 
MISSISSIPPI
 
Aberdeen       -26.1   45.6
Corinth        -28.3   43.9
Holly Springs  -24.4   46.1*   * dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Jackson        -20.6   41.7
Meridian       -21.1   41.7
Tupelo         -25.6   42.8
Vicksburg      -18.3   43.3
 
 
MISSOURI
 
Columbia       -32.2   45
Clinton          -35   47.8
Kansas City    -30.6   45.6
Lamar          -33.3   47.8
St.Joseph      -31.7   43.3
St. Louis      -30.6   46.1
Springfield    -33.9   45
Union          -32.2   47.8
Warsaw           -40   47.8
 
 
MONTANA
 
Billings         -45   44.4
Butte          -46.7   37.8
Glasgow        -50.6   45
Glendive       -45.6   47.2*   * very dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Great Falls      -45   41.7
Havre          -49.4   43.9
Helena         -41.1   40.6
Kalispell      -38.9   40.6
Medicine Lake  -50.6   47.2*   * dubious, likely recorded with not proper instruments
Miles City       -45   45
Missoula       -41.1   41.7
Rogers Pass    -56.5   37.8
West Yellowstone-54.4  37.2
 
 
NEBRASKA
 
Bridgeport     -43.9*  43.9    * recorded in the former Camp Clarke Station 
Geneva         -35.6   47.8
Grand Island   -36.7   47.2*   * dubious
Hartington     -38.9   47.8
Lincoln        -36.1   46.1
Minden         -36.1   47.8*   * dubious
Norfolk        -39.4   46.7
North Platte   -37.8   44.4
Omaha          -35.6   45.6
Oshkosh        -43.9   43.9
Scottsbluff    -42.8   43.3
Valentine      -39.4   45.6
 
 
NEVADA

Austin         -37.8   40.6  
Elko           -41.7   42.2
Ely            -37.8   38.3
Las Vegas      -13.3   48.3
Laughlin        -5.6   51.7   
Reno           -28.3   42.2
San Jacinto    -45.6   42.2
Tonopah        -26.1   40
Winnemucca     -38.3   42.8
 
 
NEW HAMPSHIRE
 
Concord        -38.3   38.9
Mt.Washington  -45.6   22.2
Nashua         -37.2   41.1
Pittsburg      -43.3   33.9
 
 
NEW JERSEY
 
Atlantic City  -23.9   41.1
Flemington     -27.8   42.2
Newark         -25.6   42.2*   * questioned
River Vale     -36.7
Runyon         -32.2   43.3*   * dubious, likely recorded under not proper conditions
Somerville     -28.9   42.2
Trenton        -25.6   41.1
 
 
NEW MEXICO
  
Albuquerque    -27.2   41.7
Artesia        -28.9   46.7
Ciniza         -49.4*          * unofficial, dubious
Clayton        -30.6   41.1
Gavilan        -45.6   36.1
Gallup         -36.7   38.3
Lakewood       -28.9   50*     * very dubious, taken with not proper instruments
Ochoa          -21.1   47.8
Orogrande        -25   46.7*   * dubious
Roswell        -33.9   45.6
Santa Fe       -27.8   37.2*   * 38.9C was also recorded at the Airport in 2013
Silver City      -25   41.1
 
 
NEW YORK
  
Albany         -35.6   40
Binghamton     -33.3   39.4 
Buffalo        -29.4   37.2
New York City  -26.1*  41.7   * unofficial -26.7C also recorded in 1780
Old Forge      -46.7   35
Rochester        -30   38.9
Stillwater Res.-46.7   36.1
Syracuse       -32.2   38.9
Troy           -30.6   42.2
 
 
NORTH CAROLINA
 
Albemarle      -21.7   42.8
Asheville      -27.2   38.3
Banner Elk       -35   36.1
Cape Hatteras  -14.4   36.1
Charlotte      -20.6   40
Fayetteville   -20.6   43.3*   * very dubious
Greensboro     -22.2   40.6
Mt.Mitchell    -36.7   27.2*   * a dubious 30.6C was also recorded in July 1925
Raleigh        -22.8   40.6
Weldon         -22.8   42.8*   * dubious
Wilmington     -17.8   40

 
NORTH DAKOTA
  
Bismarck       -42.8   45.6
Devils Lake    -43.3   44.4
Dickinson      -43.9   45.6
Fargo          -40.6   41.1
Grand Forks    -42.2   42.8
Parshall       -51.1   44.4
Steele         -45.6   49.4*   * dubious
Williston      -45.6   43.3
 
 
OHIO
  
Akron          -31.7   40
Cincinnati     -31.7   42.8
Cleveland      -28.9   40
Columbus       -33.3   41.7
Dayton         -33.3   42.2
Gallipolis     -33.3   45*    * very dubious,likely recorded with not proper instruments
Hamilton         -30   43.9
Milligan       -39.4
Paulding       -31.7   43.9
Toledo         -28.9   40.6
Wilmington     -31.7   43.9
Youngstown     -30.6   39.4
 
 
OKLAHOMA

Altus          -24.4   48.9
Alva           -27.2   48.9
Guthrie        -32.8   46.7
Nowata           -35   47.8
Oklahoma City  -27.2   45
Poteau         -26.7   48.9
Tipton         -28.3   48.9*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments 
Tulsa          -26.7   46.1
Vinita         -32.8   47.8*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Watts          -32.8   45.6
 
 
OREGON
  
Astoria        -15.6   40
Bandon         -13.3   37.8
Bend           -32.2   40
Burns          -35.6   41.7
Eugene         -24.4   42.2
Medford        -23.3   46.1
Pelton Dam     -26.1   47.2
Pendleton      -34.4   45.6*   * 48.3C in August 1898 is a faulty data
Portland       -19.4   41.7*   * 43.3C also recorded in the city's suburbia in 1935
Prineville     -37.2   40.6*   * 48.3C  in July 1898 is a faulty data
Roseburg       -21.1   42.8
Salem          -24.4   42.2 
Seneca         -47.8   40
Ukiah          -47.8   43.3
Umatilla       -32.8   47.2
 

PENNSYLVANIA
  
Allentown      -26.1   40.6
Bellefonte     -30.6   42.2
Carlisle       -27.8   42.2
Claysville     -32.8   42.2
Erie           -27.8   37.8
Everett        -32.8   42.2
Farrell Sharon -30.6   42.2
Harrisburg       -30   41.7
Marcus Hook    -24.4   42.2
Philadelphia   -24.4   41.7
Phoenixville   -28.3   43.9*   * dubious, likely recorded under not proper conditions
Pittsburgh     -32.2   39.4
Smethport      -41.1   36.7
Wilkes Barre   -29.4   39.4
Williamsport   -28.9   41.1
 
 
RHODE ISLAND
 
Block Island   -23.3   35
Greene         -31.7*         * questioned 
Kingston       -30.6   37.8
Providence     -32.2   40
Wood River Junc.-33.3*        * unofficial, likely taken with not proper exposure conditions
 
 
SOUTH CAROLINA

Blackville     -19.4   43.9 
Caesars Head   -28.9   37.2
Calhoun Falls  -18.9   43.9
Camden         -19.4   43.9
Charleston     -16.7*  40.6   * unofficial -17.8C also reported in the same month February 1835 
Columbia       -18.9   45*    * dubious,likely recorded with under not proper conditions
Eutawville     -19.4   43.9
Florence       -18.3   42.2
Greenville     -23.9   41.7
Hogback Mount. -30
Johnston       -18.9   45*    * questioned,likely recorded with under not proper conditions

 
SOUTH DAKOTA
  
Aberdeen       -43.9   46.1
Fort Pierre    -43.9   48.9
Gann Valley    -42.2   48.9*   * dubious
Huron          -41.7   44.4
Mc Intosh        -50   45.6
Pierre           -40   47.2
Rapid City     -36.7   43.9
Rochford       -51.1*          * unofficial
Sioux Falls    -41.1   43.3
Usta             -45   48.9*   * questioned, likely recorded with not proper instruments

 
TENNESSEE
 
Bristol        -29.4   39.4
Chattanooga    -23.3   41.7
Knoxville      -31.1   40.6
Memphis          -25   42.2
Mountain City  -35.6   35
Nashville      -27.2   42.8
Perryville     -28.9   45
 
 
TEXAS
  
Abilene        -22.8   43.9
Amarillo       -26.7   43.9
Austin         -20.6   44.4
Brownsville    -11.1   41.1
Corpus Christi -11.7   42.8
Dallas         -23.3   46.1*   * questioned
Del Rio        -12.2   44.4
El Paso        -22.2   45.6
Forth Worth    -22.2   45
Galveston      -13.3   40
Great Bend NP  -19.4   40.6
Houston          -15   43.3*   * 43.9C was also recorded in other nearby stations
Laredo           -15   46.1
Lubbock        -27.2   45.6
Midland        -24.4   46.7
Monahans       -22.8   48.9
Port Arthur    -11.7   42.2
San Angelo       -20   43.9
San Antonio    -17.8   45
Seminole       -30.6   45.6
Seymour        -25.6   48.9
Tulia          -30.6   43.3
Victoria       -12.8   43.9
Waco           -20.6   44.4
Wichita Falls  -24.4   47.2 
 
 
UTAH
 
Blanding       -30.6   40*     * old records in 1905 were recorded under bad exposure conditions
Milford        -37.2   41.7
Peter's Sink   -56.3*          * originally -69.3F (-56.3C) was later rounded to -69F (-56.1C)
Saint George   -23.9   47.2
Salt Lake City -34.4   41.7
Strawberry Tunnel-45.6 32.2*   * recorded in the nearby East Station
Wendover       -28.3   41.7*   * 44.4C in July 1939 is likely incorrect
Woodruff       -45.6   37.8
 
 
VERMONT

Bellows Falls  -37.2   38.9 
Bloomfield     -45.6   37.2
Burlington     -35.6   38.3
Cavendish      -41.1   38.9*   * dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Cornwall       -35.6   40*     * dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Vernon         -36.7   40.6*   * dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Woodstock      -41.7   42.2*   * faulty data, taken with not proper instruments
 

VIRGINIA
 
Balcony Falls  -17.8   43.3*   * dubious
Catawba        -22.8   38.9*   * a claimed record of 43.3C in 1932 is a wrong data
Colonial Beach -21.1   42.8
Columbia       -26.1   43.3*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments
Dulles Int. AP -27.8   40.6
Lincoln        -26.1   42.8
Lynchburg      -23.3   41.1
Mount Lake     -34.4   31.1
Norfolk        -19.4   40.6
R. Reagan In AP-20.6   40.6
Roanoke        -24.4   41.1
Richmond         -25   41.7    * unofficial and dubious -27.2C also recorded in another station
Williamsburg AP-21.7   42.8*   * dubious
Woodstock      -30.6   42.8

 
WASHINGTON
 
Bellingham       -20   36.1
Ice Harbor Dam -25.6   47.8
Mazama         -44.4   39.4
Olympia        -22.2   40
Omak           -32.2   45.6
Seattle        -17.8*  40.6   * an unofficial -18.9C was also recorded in January 1862
Spokane        -34.4   42.8
Tattoosh Island-14.4   31.1
Walla Walla    -33.9   45.6
Winthrop       -44.4   41.1
Yakima         -31.7   43.9
 
  
WEST VIRGINIA
  
Beckley        -30.6   37.8
Charleston     -31.1   42.2
Elkins         -33.3   37.2
Huntington     -31.1   42.2
Lake Lynn      -26.7   44.4*   * dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments  
Lewisburg      -38.3   38.9
Martinsburg    -28.3   44.4*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments  
Moorefield     -32.8   44.4*   * very dubious, likely taken with not proper instruments  
Parkersburg    -32.8   41.1
Wheeling       -27.8   43.3*   * dubious
 
 
WISCONSIN
  
Bayfield       -36.7   40
Couderay       -48.3   38.9
Danbury        -47.8   42.2
Eau Claire     -42.8   43.9
Green Bay      -37.8   40
La Crosse      -41.7   42.2
Madison        -38.3   41.7
Milwaukee      -34.4   42.2
Wasau            -40   41.7
Wisconsin Dells-41.7   45.6*   * dubious
 
 
WYOMING
 
Basin          -46.1   42.8*   * a record of 46.1C in August 1983 is likely incorrect
Casper         -40.6   42.8
Cheyenne       -38.9   37.8
Colony         -39.4   44.4
Jackson        -46.7   36.1
Lander           -40   38.9
Moran          -52.8   33.9
Redbird        -43.9   44.4
Sheridan       -42.8   42.8
Spencer        -41.1   44.4*   * dubious
 
 
 
Other Territories
 
PUERTO RICO
 
San Juan        15.6   36.7
Ponce           11.7   37.8
Aibonito         4.4   34.4
Adjuntas Subst.  4.4   33.9   
 

US VIRGIN ISLANDS
 
Saint Thomas AP 17.2   34.4
Catherineberg   15.6   35.6
Annaly (St Croix)16.1  35

 
NORTHERN MARIANAS
 
Saipan          16.7   35


GUAM
 
Agana Airport   18.3   35
Guam WSMO       12.2*  34.1   * very dubious,likely taken with not proper instruments
Guam Mariana Is.  16*  33.3   * very dubious,likely taken with not proper instruments
Guam WFO        17.2*         * very dubious,likely taken with not proper instruments


AMERICAN SAMOA
 
Pago Pago AP    17.2   35.6
 

PACIFIC ISLANDS

Johnston Island 16.7   34.4*  * dubious 35.0C also recorded in 7 occasions
Midway Island    7.2*  33.3   * suspicious
Palmyra Atoll   18.3   32.2
Wake Island     15.6   35


GUANTANAMO BAY  13.9   37.8



1 comment:

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