Thursday, 25 April 2019

Muslims fee Negombo; Christians grieve

The WHOLE of Sri Lanka is grieving, not just the minorities.
Muslims flee, Christians 
grieve in Sri Lankan town 
torn by violence

25 April, 2019

NEGOMBO, Sri Lanka (Reuters) - As mourners buried the remains of Christian worshippers killed by the Easter Sunday suicide bomb attacks in Sri Lanka, hundreds of Muslim refugees fled Negombo on the country’s west coast where communal tensions have flared in recent days.

At least 359 people perished in the coordinated series of blasts targeting churches and hotels. Church leaders believe the final toll from the attack on St Sebastian’s Church in Negombo could be close to 200, almost certainly making Negombo the deadliest of the six near-simultaneous attacks.

On Wednesday, hundreds of Pakistani Muslims fled the multi-ethnic port an hour north of the capital, Colombo. Crammed into buses organized by community leaders and police, they left fearing for their safety after threats of revenge from locals.

Because of the bomb blasts and explosions that have taken place here, the local Sri Lankan people have attacked our houses,” Adnan Ali, a Pakistani Muslim, told Reuters as he prepared to board a bus. “Right now we don’t know where we will go.”

Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attacks, yet despite Islamic State being a Sunni jihadist group, many of the Muslims fleeing Negombo belong to the Ahmadi community, who had been hounded out of Pakistan years ago after their sect was declared non-Muslim.

The fallout from Sunday’s attacks appears set to render them homeless once more.

Farah Jameel, a Pakistani Ahmadi, said she had been thrown out of her house by her landlord.
She said ‘get out of here and go wherever you want to go, but don’t live here’,” she told Reuters, gathered with many others at the Ahmadiyya Mosque, waiting for buses to take them to a safe location.


Sri Lanka’s government is in disarray over the failure to prevent the attacks, despite repeated warnings from intelligence sources.

Police have detained an unspecified number of people were detained in western Sri Lanka, the scene of anti-Muslim riots in 2014, in the wake of the attacks, and raids were carried out in neighborhoods around St Sebastian’s Church.
Police played down the threats to the refugees, but said they have been inundated with calls from locals casting suspicion on Pakistanis in Negombo.

We have to search houses if people suspect,” said Herath BSS Sisila Kumara, the officer in charge at Katara police station, where 35 of the Pakistanis that gathered at the mosque were taken into police custody for their own protection, before being sent to an undisclosed location.

All the Pakistanis have been sent to safe houses,” he said. “Only they will decide when they come back.”

Two kilometers away, makeshift wooden crosses marked the new graves at the sandy cemetery of St Sebastian’s Church, as the latest funerals on Wednesday took the number buried there to 40.

Channa Repunjaya, 49, was at home when he heard about the blast at St Sebastian’s. His wife, Chandralata Dassanaike and nine-year-old daughter Meeranhi both died.

I felt like committing suicide when I heard that they had died,” he told Reuters by the open graves. “I have nothing now.”

Meeranhi’s grandmother, with her head still bandaged after being wounded in the attack, was held by a relative as the first handfuls of earth were scattered upon her child-sized coffin.

Most of Sri Lanka’s 22 million people are Buddhist, but the Indian Ocean island’s population includes Muslim, Hindu and Christian minorities. Until now, Christians had largely managed to avoid the worst of the island’s conflict and communal tensions.

There were signs of some religious communities pulling together following Sunday’s outrage.

Saffron- and scarlet-robed Buddhist monks from a nearby monastery handed out bottled water to mourners who gathered under a baking afternoon sun.

But the town, which has a long history of sheltering refugees – including those made homeless by a devastating tsunami in 2004 – may struggle to recover from Sunday’s violence, said Father Jude Thomas, one of dozens of Catholic priests who attended Wednesday’s burials.

Muslims and Catholics lived side by side,” he said. “It was always a peaceful area, but now things have come to the surface we cannot control.”

Turks arrest ISIS extremists plotting to attack Gallipoli celebrations

ISIS extremist plotting to 
attack Gallipoli 
commemoration on Anzac 
Day is arrested - as security 
  • The suspect, 26-year-old Syrian Abdulkerim Hilef, has been detained in a province near Gallipoli peninsula
  • Turkish authorities say they arrested the man after monitoring his communication with ISIS members
  • More than 1,300 Australians and New Zealanders are registered to attend the commemoration in Turkey 
According to Turkish media, the suspect, 26-year-old Syrian national Abdulkerim Hilef, (pictured) has been detained in Tekirdag, a northwestern province close to the Gallipoli peninsula

Daily Mail,
25 April, 2019

Turkish authorities have arrested a suspected Islamic State member they believe was planning to attack a WWI commemoration at Gallipoli on Thursday just hours before hundreds of thousands of people gathered in Australia.

The suspect, 26-year-old Syrian national Abdulkerim Hilef, has been detained in Tekirdag, a northwestern province close to the Gallipoli peninsula.

Turkish authorities said they arrested the man after monitoring his alleged telecommunications with identified ISIS members, believing he had plans to attack the dawn service in 'retribution for the Christchurch terror attack'.

More than 1,300 Australians and New Zealanders are registered to attend the commemoration, with several thousand Turkish police expected to patrol the area.

Australian War Memorial director Brendan Nelson lamented fundamentalists with 'heinous motives' trying to disrupt Anzac Day services after the potential terror plot was foiled.

Dr Nelson praised Turkish authorities for dealing with the issue.

'It's a reflection of the fact that we do have some people who have heinous motives,' he told reporters in Canberra on Thursday.

'The Turkish authorities went to extraordinary lengths to see that the Gallipoli peninsula was secure for the Anzac Day services that are being held there.'

Turkish nationals were banned from attending the dawn service, which Chief of the Defence Force Angus Campbell is due to be at, amid heightened security fears.

'Unfortunately we live in a world where there are people - wherever they live, whatever their background, whatever their beliefs - who are fundamentalists intent on disrupting what we do,' Dr Nelson said.

A bomb search was underway at Gallipolli to ensure the safety of thousands of people scheduled to attend the service.

Turkish forces are conducting security checks every couple of hundred metres in the national park surrounding Anzac Cove, The Australian reported.

The agenda trumps over any form of truth

A “marriage of convenience between ISIS and the Sri Lankan government”: NZ Deep State operative Paul Buchanan rails against the Sri Lankan Minister of Defence – and the TRUTH

Bot only that but our PM is now planning to hold a conference with none other than Emmanuel Macron who shoots and gasses his own population and bombs other countries - and who would love to "control" his own population's access to real information - to "control" social media.

And then came the bombings in Sri Lanka where the death toll has reached 349 dead.

The Sri Lankan government seems from a distance at least, to be doing what the NZ government never did - and investigating the whole affair and waiting before coming up with a theory as to whodunnit.

Compared to those who are running this country I was quite impressed with Sri Lanka's Junior Minister of Defence.

In his press conference he stated that the Easter Sunday attacks in Colombo were an act of revenge for the Christchurch attack on 15 March.

Go back to 20 March and the reporting that ISIS and "every major jihadist group" were threatening retaliation after Christchurch.

Back then the NZ media didn't seem to have too many problems with this possible narrative.

Listen to this piece with another interview with yet another "talking head" from back then:

On the surface of it it would appear that there was little possibility that ISIS could have had time to mount an attack in Sri Lanka in response to the Christchurch attack.

But who is to say that preparations were not already in train for an attack and the Christchurch attack provided the terrorists with the motivation to attack Christian targets on Easter Sunday?

That is what the Sri Lankan minister seems to be saying and New Zealanders would know this if their media provided the whole press conference instead of just reporting what the government WANTS you to know.

Here is what the government wants to hoodwink you into believing

Sri Lanka blasts: Authorities wary over linking attacks to Christchurch and ISIS


And then in wades American Paul B.Buchanan, shill for the Five Eyes and American Deep State with the disgusting piece below.

How do I know this and what proof do I have?  Only what comes out of his mouth in conjunction with the following: 

Dr Paul G. Buchanan is a former policy analyst and intelligence consultant to US government security agencies who specializes in matters of security, comparative and international politics. He is a US citizen permanent resident in New Zealand ...These responsibilities required him to have a Top Secret security clearance issued by the US government. After emigrating to New Zealand in 1997 he worked with the New Zealand Defense Forces as an educational consultant on issues of unconventional warfare, and has more recently lectured at the Australian Defense College on Southeast Asian geopolitics. He has an established profile as a media commentator on matters of international import.

Beware the false narrative linking Christchurch to Sri Lanka bombings

You can get a sense of the toxic message by listening to the interview below:

Buchanan says this is a "marriage of convenience between ISIS and the Sri Lankan government"to deflect the responsibility elsewhere.

By buying into this we fall into the narrative of the clash of civilisations - we are getting into a "tit-for-tat" scenario - "we don't want to go there"
Reckless to make unsubstantiated claims

Even if the claims are true we don't want to give credance to the idea we are caught in a clash of civilisations

The attacks are designed to hurt Sri Lanka's tourist business upon which it depends.

"Local grievances in play cloaked in the narrative of the clash of civilisations....

See what he is saying here:

"They occurred against a backdrop of rising violence against both Muslims and Christians in Sri Lanka by Buddhist militants, the real motive for the Easter attacks. These were not random or foreign in origin, but represent a violent response by one oppressed minority using terrorism against another minority and tourists in order to make a sharp point to the constitutionally empowered majority that it sees as increasingly oppressive in nature (70 percent of Sri Lankans practise Buddhism, which is the official religion of the country and which has constitutionally protected privileges.)

"Christians were the targets because they were left unprotected by an indifferent or incompetent government, while tourists were attacked because the country depends on them for hard currency revenues. Neither targeted group were the real subject of the attacks, nor was the objective of the attacks strictly about them."
He doesn't just 'seem' to be saying but IS saying that this is "a marriage of convenience between ISIS and the Sri Lankan government" to deflect the responsibility elsewhere and that "Local grievances in play cloaked in the narrative of the clash of civilisations...."

I would have to go through, line-by-line, paragraph-by-paragraph but this representative of the American Deep State in New Zealand is more about narrative than truth and any lie will do.

The Sri Lankan government has scarcely started its investigation (having only just buried its victims) and Paul Buchanan (just like he knew about the 'lone wolf' 'white supremacist' as the bullets were still flying) knows exactly what went down.

Or he knows what the Deep State wants you to think

There is much that is unclear. The "islamophobic" line of the Indian media who revealed the mastermind of the attack long before the rest of the media seems to have been borne out in the last 24 hours.

There is the whole question of the scandal around intelligence given to Sri Lankan officials but not handed on - something that if was to guess had more to do with infighting between the president, Maithripala Sirisena and the prime minister, Ranil Wickremesinghe than anything else.

Sri Lanka has had almost a decade of peace after defeating the Tamil Tigers (LTEE) and I suspect that they have been caught off-guard, underestimating, like so many other governments the threat.

This article, written by a Sri Lankan, appeared in the NZ Herald.

'Islamic State is in rebuilding mode': Terror group enters chilling new phase

A previously unknown group, National Thowfeek Jamaath is seemingly behind this and, I agree, they could not have brought about such a co-ordinated attack on their own and had to have logistical and financial assistance, first and foremost ISIS who seem to be making a bit of comeback in Syria with a little help from their friends.

Now who would be powerful enough to have stood behind ISIS and local Islamist organisations?

I can't say for certain but after reading Paul Buchanan I have my own suspicion- the same people who have allowed ISIS to make a comeback when they seemed to have been on on their last legs.

Sri Lanka and New Zealand are both small countries but Sri Lanka is not a member of the club.

New Zealand IS, as can be seen from this

Adern to co-operate with MACRON to restrict social media ("hate-speech")

EX-UN Ambassador, Samantha Power threatens Sri Lanka

There is little evidence of a false flag in Sri Lanka. Interpreting military drills prior to the attacks as 'evidence of such' is confirmation bias and drawing a long bow.

There does seem to be a habit of high-placed US officials turning up at key times (such as John Podesta in the lead-up to the Christchurch massacre) and Sr Lanka seems to be no exception,

At the beginning of March to praise Sri Lanka's telecoms privatisation tsar, Mangala Samaraweera and to threaten Sri Lanka to get them to fall into line on the "struggle against hate speech"

The interpretation in this video is suspect but the facts are indesputable.

Samantha Power and Mangala Samaraweera on the Same Wagon Train
Samantha Power with Mangala Samaraweera


What We Can Learn From Mangala’s 30 Years In Politics: Ambassador Samantha Power’s Speech – Full Text

Former United States diplomat Samantha Power has urged Sri Lanka to get Facebook to crackdown on hate speech, partly thought to have fuelled anti-Muslim violence last year, and called for greater global regulation and fines on social media.

Governments like yours . . . are going to have to insist that Facebook uphold its ‘Community Standards’ for all of Sri Lanka’s national languages, or face serious repercussions,” she said.
It is simply not acceptable that Facebook has not invested more in equipping itself to monitor posts in languages like Tamil or Sinhala.”
Power, former U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, said a platform with this much influence and reach cannot get by just doing the bare minimum.
Facebook needs to be far more transparent, so that experts and civil society can guide the company in how to do better in the context of the unique challenges Sri Lanka faces,” she said, referring to anti-Muslim violence last year, after hate speech and conspiracy theories about Muslims disseminated on social media.

Her remarks were made at a forum to mark 30 years in politics of Finance Minister Mangala Samaraweera, a former Minister of Post and Telecommunications, who spearheaded the privatisation of Sri Lanka’s telecommunications industry.

Today, Sri Lanka has one of the highest numbers of phones per person in all of Asia, with the country of 21 million having 34 million cell phone subscriptions. Some six million people regularly use Facebook.
Power said Samaraweera was one of the first political leaders to take to Twitter during the crisis to condemn the hate speech, sending a clear message of zero tolerance for politicians and others who incited racial violence.

In societies like ours – with mixed ethnicities and religions, with free speech and extreme voices – we ignore this reality at our peril,” she said.

Power said rapid advances in fields from social media to AI to automation are posing profound risks to democracies.

These tools are going to be decisive in global development going forward, but governments must confront their dark uses as well as their boundless possibilities,” she said.
I believe we need to dramatically increase our scrutiny of the effects of new technologies. . . . these platforms also have potentially deadly impact when it comes to the rights and well-being of marginalized groups,” Power said.
When it comes to companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Google, which failed for too long to grapple with the dangerous uses and effects of their products, it does now finally seem that they are seized with the abuses that their platforms have enabled.

But these companies need to prioritize contributing to the health of democracy as a goal, right alongside making yet more money.

Power said she was encouraged to hear that Facebook has committed to serving up to 20,000 Sri Lankan children in a digital literacy program to be run this year, and that they are participating in the government’s MART Social Circles initiative, to prepare people to better discern fake news.
In my country, I would like lawmakers and policy leaders to think about a number of approaches:, (such as) instituting regulations and heavy fines for failing to remove hate speech.”

Power also said governments should greatly restrict the ability of advertisers (or nation states disguised as such) to micro-target users with messages designed to mislead and enrage.

She also advocated re-thinking the type of anonymity afforded to users so as to cut down on the spreading of lies with impunity.
And probing seriously whether some of these tech monopolies have become so dangerously big – and so dangerous to open society – that they need to be broken up.”
(COLOMBO, March 01, 2019-SB)

Within MINUTES of posting my article I got a tweet from Buchanan

He ought to learn how to string sentences together - it takes a verb

Wednesday, 24 April 2019

Interview with the founder of Dilmah Tea

Merrill Fernando: Sri Lanka at a ‘complete stand still

Dilmah Tea founder Merrill Fernando speaks to Lisa Owen about the beloved church in his hometown, which was bombed in the Sri Lanka attacks, and a NZ school boy cricket team which has been in lockdown in the country following the Easter Sunday bombings.

Somali Muslim starts yelling in Tongan church

Of course it would be “islamophobic” to point out that the man was Muslim. I am not sure that there are very many Christian Somalis.

It is hard to see this outside the context of what has been happening in the last month

Man storms into Tongan church in Auckland and starts yelling


24 April, 2019

A North Shore couple were scared and shocked when a man stormed into their church and began yelling "Jesus Jesus" and pointing at a cross during a religious service.

North Shore couple Jenny and Samuel Kaufononga were at Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga in Mt Roskill along with their children and nieces and nephews when the incident happened on Sunday afternoon.

But it had left them so shocked and scared, they would no longer attend the church's sessions, which they would go to once a month.

Samuel Kaufononga said he was standing at the front door when he noticed the man walking up to the church from the road.

"He said he wanted to talk to our leader and I tell him he's not allowed to go inside ... I hold him outside and ask him why and he says "I want to talk to your leader, I want to talk to your leader'."

Kaufononga said while they were talking he patted the man down in case he was carrying any weapons.

However, before he knew it the man was kissing his hand and then pushing him to the side and running in the church.

Inside, Kaufononga's wife, Jenny, was sitting with her eyes closed as Reverend Atumaisa Siale was holding sacrament - a time when no one in the church is allowed to stand, let along approach elders of the church.

She said she felt the man's clothing brush past her then opened her eyes to see the man walking up to the elders at the front, yelling "Jesus, Jesus" and pointing to the cross on the wall.

Reaching the Reverend and others at the front, the man began kissing their heads and trying to shake their hands, leaving parishioners - including the Reverend - in shock.
She said people were initially reluctant to step forward due to the sanctity of the ceremony taking place but a man eventually grabbed him and tried to walk him out.

Once outside, the man started "screaming Somalia, Somalia".

"He then turned around and said 'Somalia and Tonga are one'."

After saying he would leave he then returned and started shaking people's hands again.

She was also upset to hear the man playing music while outside.

Jenny Kaufononga said the whole incident was "weird" and not something that had ever happened to any of them.

She learned afterwards, the man had also gone into the adjacent hall - where women were preparing food for after the service .

Given what had happened in Christchurch everyone was left shaken.

She felt the man's actions were mocking their beliefs.

"Still, my concern is, what was he doing in there?

"We are very shaken by it ... it's a very big thing for us. Everybody is still angry that he disrespected everything. He didn't even care, he just walked in and did what he did and people were shocked ... He was kissing the Reverend on the head."

After ignoring requests to leave the church, one of the "strong men" escorted him outside.

She now wanted police to take the incident seriously as "this is not a small thing".

"I would really love for the police to talk to him ... I know there's more to it than just walking in and yelling ' Jesus, Jesus'. That's not normal ... he looked like he was mocking our beliefs and to do that is very rude and disrespectful."

A police spokesperson confirmed police were aware of "an incident involving a male interrupting a church service" in Mt Roskill on Sunday.

"The male was escorted from the church by a congregation member.

"Police have looked into the matter and identified the male and are confident no offence was committed and that there was no cause for concern regarding the safety of congregation members."

Police continued to encourage anyone who saw suspicious behaviour, or who at any point felt unsafe, to contact police immediately.

The latest out of Sri Lanka

Controlled explosion’ near cinema in Colombo, Sri Lanka as police discover ‘suspicious’ bike


24 April, 2019

A bomb squad carried out a “controlled explosion” near a movie in Colombo, Sri Lanka after police discovered a "suspicious" scooter, while dealing with the aftermath of a series of bombings that killed 359 people.

The controlled explosion was conducted on Wednesday near the Savoy Theatre in the Wellawatte neighborhood of Colombo, Sri Lanka’s largest city.
Police discovered a “suspicious motorbike” parked outside of the cinema and decided to destroy it after they couldn’t open its seat, the junior defense minister, Ruwan Wijewardene, told reporters.

Chilling footage of Shangri-La terror attack: ISIS bombers wearing backpacks take the lift to second-floor hotel buffet before blowing themselves up in Sri Lanka atrocity 'to avenge Christchurch massacre'

  • The two attackers appear to discuss their plans in the lift before walking into the Shangri-La hotel's restaurant
  • As hotel guests have an Easter Sunday breakfast the bombers detonate their devices in a cloud of smoke  
  • At least 321 people were killed on Easter Sunday, 45 of them children, while more than 500 were injured 
  • Two sons of wealthy spice trader are believed to have blown themselves up using 'crude devices' at hotels 
  • Another chilling clip earlier showed a different bomber patting a girl on the head just before launching attack 
  • ISIS has claimed responsibility and released footage of the fighters swearing allegiance to the jihadist group 

CCTV footage has revealed the moment that two suicide bombers took a lift to the restaurant of Sri Lanka's Shangri-La hotel before they blew themselves up.

Wearing backpacks, the two men appear to discuss their plans in the elevator on the second floor in the final moments before the Easter Sunday massacre.

The bombers then enter the Table One eatery almost unnoticed while hotel guests are having breakfast before he detonates his deadly weapon.

In a split second the plush restaurant becomes a scene of horror as the bomb explodes in a cloud of smoke and bright red flame.

Sri Lankan officials believe one of the attackers at the Shangri-La was the son of a wealthy Colombo spice trader, and one of two Muslim brothers among the perpetrators of the Easter attacks in which more than 300 died.

An update on conditions in the Arctic - 23 April, 2019

In recent weeks I have been taken up with cascading events, starting with the shooting in Christchurch and more lately with the terrorist attack in Sri Lanka and quite frankly, in a state of shock.

I hope as things warm up in the Ground Zero of abrupt climate change – the Arctic – I can now devote more time to monitoring the changes in realtime.

Arctic Sea Ice & EQ Report with Margo (April 23, 2019)

 I’ve been sharing my work primarily on my YouTube channel and my Facebook page. However, with coming censorship, I’ve established a new, safe and secure platform on Subscribe Star. I will be transitioning to this page more and more. I suggest you visit my Subscribe Star page, bookmark it, join and get familiar with it now, before anything happens to my present platforms. Margo – The Scientific Empath on Subscribe Star:

 Margo’s Bitchute Channel: 

 Time is short - get your spiritual houses in order. 
God bless everyone. 
Power to the Truth! Peace, 

If you've not seen my background videos on methane, sulfur dioxide or ozone, here are the links: Global Methane Forecasts (April 28, 2018): 

Sulfur Dioxide & Volcanic Gases - Part 1 (May 23, 2018): 

Looking at Ozone - Part 1 (June 24, 2018): 
 Looking at Ozone - Part 2 (June 25, 2018): 
 Looking at Ozone - Part 3 (June 26, 2018): 

Commonly Used Links: 

Show Links:

Here is my own brief synopsis of what I see


Alaska's Insanely Warm Spring Is Killing Animals And People


Sea ice thickness

Temeprature anomalies

Methane emissions 19-22 April, 2019

Alaska's Insanely Warm Spring Is Killing Animals And People

This spring in Alaska has been more like summer, or like the same season for somewhere much warmer. What it has not been like is the usual March and April above the Arctic Circle. The consequences are being felt in devastating effects on the local wildlife, but are taking a severe toll on humans as well.
In March the average temperature of Kotzebue, on the north-west coast, was -5ºC (23ºF), 12ºC or 21.9ºF above normal. The rest of northern Alaska was not far behind. The Alaska Climate Research Center (ACRC) reports this is 4.1ºC (7.4ºF) higher than the previous March record, and the majority of the state had its warmest March ever.
People from the rest of the world, used to temperatures without a negative sign in front, might think this sounds like an improvement, but the consequences have been severe for a region built on the confidence of when there will be ice.
Two people driving on the normally frozen Kuskokwim River fell through insufficiently thick ice with their snowmobiles and died of exposure, a third barely survived. Thankfully so far the number of deaths has been low, but many remote communities depend on supplies delivered via ice roads. Increasingly people may be forced to choose between starving and risking the stability of the ice. Meanwhile, sled dog races, including the famous Iditarod, have been canceled or rerouted.
The warmer temperatures are connected to, and partly resulting from, the loss of sea ice in the Bering Sea. On the other side of the Bering Strait, the same sea ice is the reason members of the world's largest walrus colony are dying falling off cliffs in one of the most harrowing moments of David Attenborough's new Our Planet series.
Last year the Bering Sea had just 10 percent of its normal April sea ice. This year the ACRC reports things are worse so far, a fact made visible in NOAA photographs.
Climate change models have always predicted warming caused by increased greenhouse gases would be fastest at high latitudes. Changes brought about by natural causes such as extra sunlight would be greatest elsewhere.
And yet, as the overwhelming evidence the world is warming at unprecedented rates piles up, deniers are getting more shameless. Blogs, lobby groups, and even some mainstream news outlets have taken up claims the walruses Attenborough highlighted were killed fleeing polar bears, rather than in response to global warming.
The makers of the documentary have hit back, exposing the disgraceful lies being perpetrated. Not only does the film crew, who – unlike those who started the claims were actually there – say no polar bears were sighted, but we have multiple peer-reviewed studies showing walruses prefer to rest on sea ice, rather than land, and would not normally be on these cliffs.

Emissions from thawing Arctic permafrost may be 12 times higher than thought, scientists say

Emissions from thawing Arctic permafrost may be 12 times higher than previously thought, scientists have discovered.

Permafrost is a mix of soil, rock or sediment that has been frozen for at least two years which is mostly found in the uppermost areas where temperatures are rising more quickly than the rest of the world.

When it thaws because of global warming, it releases large quantities of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise and creating a perpetual cycle where more permafrost melts.

Nitrous oxide, a third greenhouse gas nearly 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide, stays in the atmosphere for an average of 114 years, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The dead sea: Global warming blamed for 40 per cent decline in the ocean's phytoplankton

NASA has updated their Temperatures vs Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) graphic on their Causes page