Beckwith has wasted any time in coming up with his own explanation
of the scientific paper below, Will Methane Clathrate Gun Only Fire
following is my (Facebook) response:
to Paul's videos (which I have been unable to absorb or watch in
their entirety) I am left wondering why he has been in such a hurry
to comment on this paper and wonder if it has more to do with his
inner state than anything. Remember his wondering about letting off
nuclear bombs? The clue comes where he says that "there is
still a climate emergency" but "no proof" of a 50gT
burp of methane taking out either human civilisation or the
species. He's very quick to want to diss the views of Sam Carana
and Guy and I'm wondering why.
Follow the links on You Tube for the other 5 parts
hydrate breakdown unlikely to cause massive greenhouse gas release
breakdown of methane hydrates due to warming climate is unlikely to
lead to massive amounts of methane being released to the atmosphere,
according to a recent interpretive review of scientific literature
performed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of
hydrate, which is also referred to as gas hydrate, is a
naturally-occurring, ice-like form of methane and water that is
stable within a narrow range of pressure and temperature conditions.
These conditions are mostly found in undersea sediments at water
depths greater than 1000 to 1650 ft and in and beneath permafrost
(permanently frozen ground) at high latitudes. Methane hydrates are
distinct from conventional natural gas, shale gas, and coalbed
methane reservoirs and are not currently exploited for energy
production, either in the United States or the rest of the world.
a global scale, gas hydrate deposits store enormous amounts of
methane at relatively shallow depths, making them particularly
susceptible to the changes in temperature that accompany climate
change. Methane itself is also a potent greenhouse gas, and some
researchers have suggested that methane released by the breakdown of
gas hydrate during past climate events may have exacerbated global
new review concludes that current warming of ocean waters is likely
causing gas hydrate deposits to break down at some locations.
However, not only are the annual emissions of methane to the ocean
from degrading gas
smaller than greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from human
activities, but most of the methane released by gas hydrates never
reaches the atmosphere. Instead, the methane often remains in the
undersea sediments, dissolves in the ocean, or is converted to carbon
dioxide by microbes in the sediments or water column.
review pays particular attention to gas hydrates beneath the Arctic
Ocean, where some studies have observed elevated rates of methane
transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere. As noted by the
authors, the methane being emitted to the atmosphere in the Arctic
Ocean has not been directly traced to the breakdown of gas hydrate in
response to recent climate change, nor as a consequence of
longer-term warming since the end of the last Ice Age.
review is the culmination of nearly a decade of original research by
the USGS, my coauthor Professor John Kessler at the University of
Rochester, and many other groups in the community," said USGS
geophysicist Carolyn Ruppel, who is the paper's lead author and
oversees the USGS Gas Hydrates Project. "After so many years
spent determining where gas hydrates are breaking down and measuring
methane flux at the sea-air interface, we suggest that conclusive
evidence for release of hydrate-related methane to the atmosphere is
Kessler explains that, "Even where we do see slightly elevated
emissions of methane at the sea-air interface, our research shows
that this methane is rarely attributable to gas hydrate degradation."
review summarizes how much gas hydrate exists and where it occurs;
identifies the technical challenges associated with determining
whether atmospheric methane originates with gas hydrate breakdown;
and examines the assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panels on
Climate Change, which have typically attributed a small amount of
annual atmospheric methane emissions to gas hydrate sources.
review also systematically evaluates different environments to assess
the susceptibility of gas hydrates at each location to warming
climate and addresses the potential environmental impact of an
accidental gas release associated with a hypothetical well producing
methane from gas hydrate deposits.
Burkett, USGS Associate Director for Climate and Land Use Change,
noted, "This review paper provides a truly comprehensive
synthesis of the knowledge on the interaction of gas hydrates and
climate during the contemporary period. The authors' sober,
data-driven analyses and conclusions challenge the popular perception
that warming climate will lead to a catastrophic release of methaneto
the atmosphere as a result of gas hydrate breakdown."